Menstruation is a typical natural phenomenon experienced by females of reproductive age. It happens as part of the menstrual cycle, a difficult procedure controlled by hormones that largely serve to prepare the body for a potential pregnancy. The underlying mechanism by which menstruation happens is as follows:
- Periodical Period: The primary phases of the menstrual cycle include the menstrual phase, the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase. The cycle starts on the first day of menstruation and can last anywhere from one individual to another, although on average it lasts roughly 28 days.
- Menstrual phase: This is the stage during which menstruation really takes place. In anticipation of a potential pregnancy, the endometrium, the uterus lining, grows throughout the preceding cycle. The body discards the thicker endometrium if fertilization of the egg by a sperm does not take place since it does not require it.
- Hormones: The ovaries' production of estrogen and progesterone, in particular, regulates menstruation. These hormone levels fall when fertilization of the egg is unsuccessful, which causes the endometrium to shed.
- Menstrual bleeding occurs when the shed endometrium, blood, and uterine tissue are evacuated via the vagina. A new menstrual cycle begins after this procedure, which lasts several days.
- Following menstruation, the body starts preparing once more for ovulation and potential conception. In preparation for a potential pregnancy, the endometrium thickens again, and the cycle resumes.